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China is Expected to Take the Lead in Building a Space Solar Power Station, and Electric Vehicles Will Never Worry about Power Outages

2019-02-18
The use of solar energy by humans has long been popular, but the utilization of solar energy on the ground is not high, and it will be attenuated by the absorption and scattering of the atmosphere, as well as the effects of cloud rain, season, and day and night. At the same time, the energy density varies greatly and is very unstable.

Solar energy in space is very abundant. Pang Zhihao, chief scientific communication expert for space exploration technology in the country, said that if a solar power station is built on a geosynchronous orbit about 36,000 kilometers, the sun's rays will not be weakened by the atmosphere, nor will it be affected by seasonal and day and night changes. 99% of the time can be Stable reception of solar radiation, its intensity is more than 6 times the ground. The fixed-point transmission of energy through the space to the ground provides an inexhaustible source of clean energy for humans.

The core application goal of the development of space solar power plants is to provide large-scale commercial power supply to the ground. Pang Zhihao said that because of its wide coverage, it can supply power to remote areas, islands and disaster areas, and it can also be used flexibly for ground moving targets.

At the same time, space solar power plants can power spacecraft in the [visible" range, freeing spacecraft from huge solar cell wings and greatly increasing power levels and control accuracy. It can also be used as a candidate for deep space exploration energy systems, and it can also be used for space fuel production and space processing manufacturing in the future to realize space industry development.

In addition, space solar power plants can also clean up the "bad" caused by traditional energy. Pang Zhihao said that the use of petrochemical energy has caused global warming, and there have been frequent occurrences of typhoons and tornadoes. The transmission of the huge energy of the space solar power station to the area where the typhoon is located can change the temperature distribution of the typhoon and destroy its formation process.


Facing multiple technical challenges


Pang Zhihao introduced that the main working principle of space solar power station is: solar power generation device converts solar energy into electric energy; energy conversion device converts electric energy into microwave or laser, and transmits the beam to the ground by using transmitting device; ground receiving system receives space transmission The beam is converted into electrical energy into the grid by a conversion device.

"At present, the technical principle has not been much problem." Pang Zhihao said that in recent years, solar power generation efficiency, microwave conversion efficiency and related aerospace technology have made great progress, laying the foundation for the next step of development. However, as a grand space system, space solar power plants have to be broken in many aspects of technology.

For example, the world's largest spacecraft, the International Space Station, weighs more than 400 tons, while an industrial-scale space solar power station weighs thousands of tons. How to build? Some domestic experts suggested that the construction materials of the space solar power station should be launched into space, and a "space factory" would be established. The required components would be printed out by 3D printing technology and then assembled by space robots (14.820, 0.06, 0.41%). This is one of the current research directions.

Long-term operational safety is also an important issue. Pang Zhihao said that the impact of long-term microwave radiation on ecology, atmosphere, and organisms needs further study.

In addition, the construction of space solar power plants poses great challenges to new materials, high-efficiency energy conversion devices, super-large spacecraft structures and control technologies, and on-orbit assembly and maintenance technologies.


China is expected to be built first


Because of its weight and scale far surpassing existing space facilities, space solar power plants are known as the [Manhattan Project" in the space and energy sectors of the new era. Since 1968, relevant concepts have been proposed. The US government and enterprises have invested nearly 100 million US dollars and implemented a number of research and development plans; Japan has officially included it in the national space long-term plan; Russia, India, South Korea, and ESA are also carrying out relevant the study.

In 2008, China incorporated the research and development of space solar power plants into the national preliminary research plan. In recent years, the platform has proposed non-concentrating, quadratic symmetrical concentrating, multi-rotating joints and spherical energy harvesting arrays, while wireless energy transmission. Significant progress has been made in key technologies. At present, China's research on space solar power plants has initially realized from "follow-and-run" to "and run", becoming an important force in promoting the development of space solar power plants internationally.

Li Ming, director of the Science and Technology Committee of the China Academy of Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation, told reporters that if China can maintain and further increase research and development, China is expected to become the first country in the world to build a solar power station with practical value space.

The reporter learned that China's first space solar power plant experimental base has recently started construction in Chongqing. It plans to build small and medium-scale stratospheric solar power stations and generate electricity from 2021 to 2025; after 2025, it will start work on large-scale space solar power station systems. Xi'an will build a ground verification platform for the space solar power plant system project, which will be used for system verification of the function and efficiency of the space solar power station.

According to the recommendations of the relevant expert group, China is striving to complete the space ultra-high voltage power transmission and wireless energy transmission test verification in the next ten years, and realize the construction of the megawatt space solar power test station in 2030 and the construction of the Jiwa class before 2050. Medium and long-term goals for the capacity of commercial space solar power plants.

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